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Health Maintenance: Female over 65

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Healthcare maintenance for female greater than 65 years of age (with life expectancy >10 years)
Box ([_]) checked if maintenance item performed at this visit. 
 

Cardiovascular disease: Per 2007 USPSTF Blood Pressure Screening Guidelines (Grade A) and JNC-8

BP screen/control performed today 
   [_] Next screen due in 2 years as BP <120/80 
   [_] Next screen due in 1 year as BP <150/90
   [_] See HTN plan above  

 

Dyslipidemia: Per 2008 USPSTF Lipid Disorders Screening Guidelines (Grade A) 

   [_] I discussed the risks and benefits of lipid screening with the patient. 
   [_] The efficacy of lipid-lowering agents as primary prevention of CHD in asymptomatic women have yielded conflicting results, with some studies showing no benefit and others showing some coronary heart disease event benefit. In the secondary prevention studies, women with diabetes, coronary heart disease, or coronary heart disease-equivalent conditions had statistically significant reductions in coronary heart disease mortality, coronary heart disease events, nonfatal myocardial infarctions, and revascularization.
   [_] Patient has risk factors for dyslipidemia (HTN, obesity, DM, personal or family history) and is 45 or greater and has elected to undergo lipid screen
   [_] Screening recommended, patient declines screening
   [_] No risk factors present, screening not indicated

Patient’s ASCVD risk score is _ per 2013 ACC/AHA Guideline on the Treatment of Blood Cholesterol 
   [_] No further interventions required 
   [_] See plan above

 
Weight Control: Per 2012 USPSTF Obesity Screening Guidelines (Grade B) and ACC/AHA 

BMI screening performed today 
   [_] Patient BMI < 18.5, see underweight plan above 
   [_] Patient BMI WNL, discussed ACC/AHA diet and exercise recommendations to maintain weight
   [_] Patient BMI 25 or greater, see overweight plan above 
   [_] Patient’s BMI >25 and CVD risk factors (HTN, HLD, DM, personal or family history) or >30, see obesity plan above 

 Diabetes:

2008 USPSTF Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Screening Guidelines (Grade B)
Indication: Asymptomatic adult with sustained blood pressure >135/80 (treated or untreated)

2014 ADA Standards of Medical Care Screening Guidelines
Indication: Patient is >45 years of age

Based on the above risk factors:
   [_] Screening indicated, patient elects to be screened for diabetes with a hemoglobin A1C 
   [_] Patient with evidence of pre-diabetes and will be screened yearly
   [_] Patient without evidence of pre-diabetes and will be screened every 3 years
   [_] Screening indicated, patient declines screening

 

Cervical Cancer: Per 2012 USPSTF Cervical Cancer Screening Guidelines (Grade D)

The USPSTF recommends against screening for cervical cancer in women older than age 65 years who have had adequate prior screening and are not otherwise at high risk for cervical cancer. Adequate screening defined by ACS/ASCCP/ASCP is 3 consecutive negative cytology results or 2 consecutive negative HPV results within 10 years, with the most recent test within 5 years. They further state that routine screening should continue for at least 20 years after spontaneous regression or appropriate management of a high-grade precancerous lesion, even if this extends screening past age 65 years.

   [_] Patient has had adequate prior screening, screening not indicated
   [_] Patient has not had adequate prior screening, screening indicated
   [_] It has been <20 years after spontaneous regression or appropriate management of a high-grade precancerous lesion requires screening, screening indicated
   [_] Patient declines indicated screening

 

BRCA-Related Cancer: Per 2013 USPSTF BRCA-Related Cancer Screening Guidelines (Grade B)
Indication: Patient is 18 years or older and has a family member with Breast, Ovarian, Tubal, or Peritoneal Cancer

Use 1 of several brief familial risk stratification tools to determine the need for in-depth genetic counseling: Ontario Family History Assessment Tool, Manchester Scoring System, Referral Screening Tool, Pedigree Assessment Tool, or FHS-7.

   [_] Patient found to be at risk for BRCA-related cancer and will undergo genetic counseling and possibly BRCA mutation testing
   [_] Patient not found to be at risk for BRCA-related cancer, assess patient for changes in family history in 5 to 10 years
   [_] Patient found to be at risk for BRCA-related cancer and refuses genetic counseling and screening

 

Breast Cancer: Per 2015 USPSTF Breast Cancer Screening Draft Recommendations (Grade B)

Indication: Patient is <75 years old and has a life expectancy greater than 10 years
   [_] I counseled the patient regarding the risks and benefits of annual vs. biennial screening.
   [_] We discussed approximately 0.1-1.6 per 1000 women (NNT = 1000) will avoid death due to breast cancer with early screening, however, there has been no overall mortality benefit shown.
   [_] We discussed approximately 510-690 per 1000 women (NNH = 1.67) will have at least 1 "false alarm" 60-80 of whom (NNH = 14) will undergo a biopsy.
   [_] We discussed approximately 0-11 per 1000 women (NNH = 200) will be over diagnosed and treated needlessly with surgery, radiation, and/or chemotherapy.

Patient chooses to:

   [_] Opt in for mammography screening now, continue annual CBE
   [_] Patient declines screening, continue annual CBE
   [_] Patient's last mammogram was normal, her next mammogram is due: _
   [_] Patient's last mammogram was abnormal, her next mammogram is due: _

 

Colorectal Cancer:  Per 2008 USPSTF Colorectal Cancer Screening Guidelines (Grade A/C)
Indication: Patient is <75 (Grade A)
Indication: Patient is 76-85 and has risk factors and has a reasonable life expectancy > 10 years (Grade C)

   [_] We discussed, colonoscopy (associated with 271 life-years gained for every 1000 persons screened, Hemoccult II and flexible sigmoidoscopy (218 and 199 life-years gained, respectively, per 1000 persons screened). 
   [_] Patient elects to undergo colonoscopy every 10 years 
   [_] Patient elects to undergo flexible sigmoidoscopy every 5 years
   [_] Patient elects to undergo yearly FOBT/Hemoccult screening
   [_] Patient declines screening

 

Lung Cancer: Per 2013 USPSTF Lung Cancer Screening Guidelines (Grade B)

Indication: Patient is <80 years of age with 30 pack-year smoking history and currently smokes or has quit within the past 15 years 

   [_] We discussed the risks and benefits of low-dose CT.  
   [_] I rec'd low-dose CT based on the 20% reduction in lung cancer mortality with screening (NNT 5), and all-cause mortality of 6.7% (NNT 15) based on the NLST randomized trial. 
   [_] We discussed the potential harms of screening including high rates of "false-positive" (non-cancer) findings leading to additional testing (usually serial imaging), which may include invasive procedures. 
   [_] Will continue with annual screening until the patient has not smoked for 15 years or develops a health problem that substantially limits life expectancy or the ability or willingness to have curative lung surgery.  

   [_] Patient elects for annual screen, next screening due: _
   [_] Patient declines screening

 

Vaccines: Per CDC Guidelines 
Seasonal influenza: Recommended for all patients

Td/Tdap: 1 dose every 10 years, can be administered regardless of interval

 Zoster  

Pneumococcal vaccine: Per ACIP Guidelines, PCV13 followed at least 6-12 months later by PPSV23 (or vice versa)  

 Hepatitis A Indication: Patient with risk factors (MSM, IVDU, chronic liver disease or receive clotting factor concentrates, working with HAV-infected primates or with HAV in a research laboratory setting, travel to high or intermediate endemicity of hepatitis A, close personal contact (eg, household or regular babysitting) with an international adoptee during the first 60 days after arrival in the United States from a country with high or intermediate endemicity) 

Hepatitis B Indication: Patient with risk factors (Sexually active with >1 partner during the previous 6 months, seeking evaluation or treatment for a STD, IVDU, MSM, Healthcare personnel and public safety workers, DM, end-stage renal disease, HIV, and/or chronic liver disease) 

 Meningococcal (two doses at least two months apart due) Indication: Patient with risk factors (anatomical or functional asplenia, or persistent complement component deficiencies.  Booster rec’d every five years is recommended for adults previously vaccinated who remain at increased risk for infection as above
 

   [_] Patient elects for the following vaccines: _
   [_] Patient declines the following vaccines: _

 
STD: Per USPSTF Screening Guidelines

Indication: Patient without risk factors, no further testing indicated
Indication: Patient with risk factors (MSM, IVDU, multiple partners, or seeking STD screening/treatment)

Patient elects to be screened for:
   [_] GC/Chlamydia, HIV, and Hepatitis B, for risk factors listed above 
   [_] Syphilis, for risk factors (commercial sex worker,  pregnancy, and/or person in correctional facilities) 
   [_] Patient declines screening

 

HIV: Per 2013 USPSTF HIV Infection Screening Guidelines (Grade A), All low risk adults should receive 1 HIV screen during their lifetime. For patient with high risk sexual activity see above STD screening recommendations.

   [_] Patient elects to be screened today
   [_] Patient declines screening 

 

Hepatitis C: Per 2013 USPSTF Hepatitis C Screening Guidelines (Grade B) 

Screening indicated for patients with the following risk factors:

-history of illicit injection drug use or intranasal cocaine use, even if only used once 

-received clotting factors made before 1987 

-received blood/organs before July 1992 

-received blood from a donor who later tested positive for HCV 

-born to HCV-infected mother 

-needle stick injury or mucosal exposure to HCV-positive blood 

-current sexual partner of an HCV-infected person 

-liver disease (persistently elevated alanine aminotransferase [ALT] level) 

-born in the United States between 1945 and 1965 

-chronic hemodialysis 

-HIV 

-Incarcerated 

   [_] We discussed the risks and benefits of screening. 
   [_] I rec'd screening based on the all-cause mortality reduction, decrease in rates of progression to chronic liver disease, and hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with sustained serologic response to antiviral treatment.  
   [_] We discussed the risk of screening, including false positives which may lead to unnecessary liver biopsy or treatment with antivirals. 

   [_] Patient without ongoing risk factors and therefore elects to be screened only once
   [_] Patient with ongoing risk factors and elects to be screened annually or sooner as needed
   [_] Patient declines screening 

 

Psycho-social: 
   [_] Patient without evidence of or risk factors for depression, anxiety, alcohol, tobacco, or domestic abuse 
   [_] Patient screened positive, see above for plan

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